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The Natal Mounted Police (NMP) was formed in 1874 by a retired British Army officer, Major (later Major-General Sir) John Dartnell as a para-military force and the first line of defence in the Colony of Natal. Its men first saw action in the Zulu War of 1879, where one detachment went in search of the Zulu army while another stayed and fought in the Battle of Isandlwana. Twenty-five of the latter died of whom 21 fought in a last stand with 19 Natal Carbineers trying to protect the camp commander, Colonel Durnford. Two men, one of whom was killed, took part in the Battle of Rorke's Drift. Natal Mounted Policemen later served in the Basuto Rebellion (1880/1) and the Transvaal Rebellion (1st Anglo-Boer War) (1880/1). Normal policing included providing an escort for the Empress Eugenie in 1880 when she visited the site where her son, the Prince Imperial, Louis Napoleon, was killed during the Zulu War. After 1881, out-stations were established throughout Natal and policing often consisted of long patrols in out-of-the-way places.

In 1894 the Natal Mounted Police was amalgamated with other of the Colony's law-enforcement and prisons agencies to form the Natal Police (NP), by which name it was known until it was disbanded in 1913.

One of the notable achievements of this new force was the introduction for the first time in Africa of finger-printing for forensic identification purposes. The world's first forensic fingerprint office had been established in Calcutta, India, in 1897. Sub-Inspector (later Chief Commissioner) W J Clarke of the NP's Criminal Investigation Department (CID) was convinced of the value of the system in law-enforcement and in 1898 he tried to introduce fingerprinting in Natal. Clarke received no support from his superiors but he was so convinced of the merits of the system that he launched it at his own expense. Eventually, the system was officially approved and, after increasing numbers of arrests and convictions, finger-printing became standard police procedure in Natal. By about 1910, there were more sets of finger-prints on file with the NP's CID than there were at any similar office in the British Empire, including Scotland Yard.

In September 1899, when war with the Boer Republics was threatening, the NP went on alert and detachments of men were sent to patrol the borders. War was declared on 11/10/1899 and three days later the first casualties of the Natal campaign were suffered when a Boer patrol crossed the Buffalo River at De Jager's Drift and captured a NP picket stationed there. All the police in northern Natal then retired to Dundee, where the Battle of Talana was fought on 20/10/1899. The NP, which was held in reserve with the Leicestershire Regiment, had only two men wounded in this action. The British force then retired to Ladysmith with the NP under Colonel Dartnell leading the way. Several men were present during the Battle of Elandslaagte (21/10/1899), but did not take part in the fighting.

In the days leading up to the Siege of Ladysmith, the Boers gained the upper hand in several skirmishes with the British. One such action was at Lombard's Kop on 30/10/1899, when many of the police came under fire for the first time. Thereafter, except for a NP escort that took Boer prisoners to Pietermaritzburg, all 90 northern Natal policemen were besieged in Ladysmith.

During the Siege Colonel Dartnell served on General White's staff, while Sub-Inspector Clarke took command of the NP force, which was attached to the Natal Volunteers under Colonel Royston. The NP casualties during the Siege were one man killed, three wounded and three died of disease.

The first significant action that involved the Natal Volunteers and their fellow-Colonials, the Imperial Light Horse (ILH), was a night attack on Gun Hill on 7/12/1899. The NP guarded the left flank of the attack, which was carried out by men of the ILH and Natal Carbineers (NC), together with a demolition team from the Royal Engineers. The Boers were taken by surprise and retreated from the summit, abandoning their guns in the process. A howitzer and Long Tom were damaged with explosives and the Long Tom breech block and a Maxim gun were carried back to Ladysmith by the attackers. The NP were late in returning to Ladysmith, having failed to hear the "retire" bugle call owing to an intervening hill. This successful enterprise was one of the few morale-boosters experienced by the inhabitants of Ladysmith during the Siege.

The NP were next in action on the night of 5/1/1900 when a picket ahead of Caesar's Camp came under fire in what turned out to be a major Boer attack on the British line on Wagon Hill (6/1/1900). As day broke the Boers shot all the picket's horses forcing the NP to retreat on foot under heavy fire and three men were wounded before they reached their camp by a circuitous route that avoided the enemy and the action on Wagon Hill. Although the British suffered heavy casualties that day, they prevailed and the Boers eventually called off the attack after also loosing many men. The Boers never again attempted a frontal assault on the Ladysmith garrison.

After 118 days of increasing privation, the Siege was lifted on the afternoon of 28/2/1900 by an advance party of the Mounted Brigade's Composite Regiment, which included 15 Natal Policemen under Sub-Inspector A G Abraham. A resident of Ladysmith, Bella Craw, described the event in her diary:

"We heard great cheering at Indombi Camp" and were told that a "flying column was to be seen coming past [the] Camp, so we immediately turned down the street in the direction of the cheering. We got so excited that we actually ran at times through pools and puddles that were too big to jump (there had been a heavy rain during the afternoon). We only got as far as Mrs Hayden's when we met a squadron of Imperial Light Horse headed by Major Karri Davis, 80 so I believe were there. Then came a small number of Natal Police, twenty or thirty, then Natal Carbineers headed by Major Duncan McKenzie ..." "The General and all his staff met them just by our gate."

The NP who escaped the Siege had prepared for the War before it broke out. Preparations included the establishment of the Natal Police Field Force (NP FF), whose members were excluded from police duties and who were placed on active service. One detachment, together with the Umvoti Mounted Rifles, was sent to Tugela Ferry on the Zululand border in case there was an invasion by that route. A second NP FF detachment was sent to Estcourt, where it was divided in two. One section became the Bodyguard for General Sir Redvers Buller VC, Officer Commanding the British forces in Natal, a duty entrusted to the Natal Police for the duration of Buller's stay in South Africa. The second section joined detachments of other Colonial troops whose regiments were besieged in Ladysmith (ILH, NC, Natal Mounted Rifles and Border Mounted Rifles) and a company of the King's Royal Rifle Corps Mounted Infantry to form the Composite Regiment (under Major Gough) of the Mounted Brigade (under Lord Dundonald).

The Composite Regiment was active throughout the Relief. Because it included so many local men who were familiar with the area of operations, and who spoke Dutch and Zulu, it was invaluable in scouting and patrols. In addition to providing Buller's Bodyguard, the NP also provided orderlies to Lord Dundonald and General Hildyard during the Battle of Colenso (15/12/1899). During this battle, the Composite Regiment took part in the Mounted Brigade's assault on Hlangwane. This assault failed for want of infantry support. This deficiency was remedied two months later at the start of the Battle of Tugela Heights when Hlangwane and other high ground south of the Tugela River was taken. This ultimately led to the defeat of the Boers to the north of the river and the lifting of the Siege.

Another action involving the NP at this time was the assault on the Nqutu Magistracy by a Boer Commando (30/1/1900), which resulted in the capture of the Magistrate and his staff, together with a number of NP and Zululand Police.

After the Siege, the NP FF and Buller's Bodyguard fought on in northern Natal and the eastern Transvaal until Buller's command was successfully concluded after the last setpiece battle of the War at Bergendal (27/8/1900). Thereafter many NP returned to their pre-War positions, although those in Zululand and the Transvaal districts of Utrecht and Vryheid remained on active service until the end of the War. A new unit, the Utrecht-Vryheid Mounted Police was formed at this time and after the War it was replaced by the Natal Border Police (NBP). The NBP was amalgamated with the NP when Utrecht and Vryheid were incorporated into Natal.

The most serious action involving the NP at this time took place in Zululand on 28/4/1901. A NP patrol from Mahlabatini was fired on and, after being reinforced, it continued towards Mtonjaneni. Before reaching safety, it was ambushed by a large Boer force. A firefight ensued and the Boers were eventually driven off. The NP had four killed, two mortally wounded and one wounded. Sergeant J H Evans and Sergeant J A Smith were awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM) for their actions during this skirmish.

Later, Brigadier-General Dartnell, who had been promoted, took command of the newly-formed Imperial Light Horse Brigade in the eastern Orange Free State. He took with him a number of Natal Policemen and they remained there until Dartnell relinquished his post at the end of 1901.

The NP next saw action during the 1906 Natal (Bambhatha) Rebellion. The spark that set off this conflict was the murder of two Natal Policemen near Richmond on 8/2/1906. The NP fielded the largest uniformed force of over 1 100 men during the Rebellion, which was a far cry from the approximately 300 men in the NP in 1899. Six policemen were killed in action during this conflict and two were awarded the DCM.

After the unification of South Africa in 1910, the days of the Colonial police forces were numbered. In 1913 the NP ceased to exist and its men were assigned either to a military unit, the South African Mounted Rifles, or the S A Police and S A Prisons Service. In the 40 years of its existence, the NMP/NP fought in two wars and three rebellions and countless other minor skirmishes, a record that is probably not equaled by any other police force in late Victorian and Edwardian times.

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(2606 Records)

 Surname   Forename/inits   Regimental no   Rank   Notes 
AbrahamA GSource: QSA and KSA rolls
AbrahamF MSource: QSA and KSA rolls
AbramsLSource: QSA and KSA rolls
Ackland1964Tpr Prisoner - released at Pretoria. 6 Jun 1900.
Source: Natal Field Force Casualty Roll, page 228 line 19
AdamsA ESource: QSA and KSA rolls
AdamsJ WTrooperNatal 1906 (1)
Source: Recipients of the Natal 1906 Medal
AdamsW ESource: QSA and KSA rolls
AldersonF B TTrooperNatal 1906 (1)
Source: Recipients of the Natal 1906 Medal
AldwinckleJSource: QSA and KSA rolls
AldwinckleJ2339TrooperDangerously wounded. Mahlabatini, 24 April 1901
Died 24 May
Source: South African Field Force Casualty Roll
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This information is taken from the Natal Almanac of 1899. The Almanac contains a page of information on the Natal Police including its structure and the names of the main post holders.

Chief Commissioner—Colonel J. G. Dartnell, C.M.G.

Assistant Commissioner—G. Mansell, C.M.G.

STAFF

Inspector—F. A. Campbell.

Inspector and Paymaster—F. H. S. Sewell.

Sub-Inspector and Assistant Paymaster—W. E. Ives.

Sub-Inspector and Adjutant—O. Dimmick

Sub-Inspector and Quartermaster—W. D. Campbell

Sub-Inspector and Quartermaster, Eshowe—J. Hamilton.

Sergt.-Major—E. W. Brown.

Paymaster Sergt.—C. D. Pearce.

Quartermaster-Sergeant—J. D. Johnson.

Three Sergeants.

Criminal Investigation Department—Inspector W. J. Clarke (in charge).

DISTRICT POLICE

Five Inspectors—W. F. Fairlie; F. L. Phillips; A. Prendergast; G. L. Mardaal; W. V. Dorehill

Sixteen Sub-Inspectors—W. C. H. George; A. G. Petley; J. Strutt; J. E. Rose; A. G. Abraham; L. Meiners; W. E. Lyttle; R. Keating; C. E. Fairlie; J. B. Marshall; F. Evans; F. A. Fynney; R. S. Maxwell; H. H. West; A.

Clifton; F. R. Mansell.

Sixty-five Sergeants.

Five hundred and sixty-three Mounted European Constables.

Forty Indian Constables.

Eight hundred and eighty-two Native Constables, Mounted and Dismounted.

The Colony is divided into seventeen Police Districts, as follows:—

A.-Newcastle Division—Headquarters, Newcastle. Sub-Inspector Petley.

B.—Dundee and Umsinga Divisions—Headquarters, Dundee. Sub-Inspector Lyttle.

C.—Klip River and Upper Tugela Divisions—Headquarters, Ladysmith. Inspector Dorehill.

D.— Estcourt and Weenen Divisions—Headquarters, Estcourt. Sub-Inspector West.

E.—Unvoti, Kranzkop, and New Hanover Divisions—Headquarters, Greytown. Inspector Prendergast.

F.—Inanda and Ndwedwe Divisions-Headquarters, Verulam. Inspector Mardall.

G.—Lion's River and Impendhle Divisions—Headquarters, Howick. Inspector Phillips.

H.—Umgeni and Upper Umkomanzi Divisions—Headquarters, Maritzburg. Sub-Inspector George.

I.—Ixopo and Ipolela Divisions-Headquarters, Ixopo. Sub-Inspector Strutt.

K.—Umlazi and Alexandra Divisions—Headquarters, Durban. Sub-Inspector Rose.

L.—Alfred and Lower Umzimkulu Divisions.—Headquarters, Port Shepstone. Sub-Inspector Keating.

M.—Lower Tugela and Mapumulo Divisions—Headquarters, Umhlali. Sub-Inspector Meiners.

N.—Eshowe, Umlalazi, and Lower Umfolosi Divisions—Headquarters, Eshowe. Sub-Inspector Mansell

O.—'Nkandhla and Nqutu Divisions—Headquarters,'Nkandhla. Sub-Inspector Marshall.

P.—Mahlalatini and Entonjaneni Divisions—Headquarters, Melmoth. Sub-Inspector Maxwell

Q.—Inshoandwe and Hlabisa Divisions-Headquarters, Nongoma. Sub-Inspector Evans.

R.—Ingwavuma, Ubombo, and Maputa Divisions—Headquarters.

WATER POLICE

Superintendent—G. E. Tatum.

Thirteen European Constables.

Twenty-four Native Constables.

RAILWAY POLICE

Superintendent-W. Bousfield.

Three European Sergeants.

Seven Eurpoean Constables.

Thirty Native Constables.

Five Indian Constables.

MESSENGERS OF RESIDENT MAGISTRATES' COURTS

Maritzburg (City), J. T. Gutridge; Umgeni, S. Kenmuir; Durban, J. Smedley; Umlazi, P. Farrell; Lion's River, A. J. S. Young; Richmond, C. Williams; Ixopo, J. B. Stone; Ipolela, H. J. Gazzard; Umvoti, M. Foley; Estcourt, T. J. Nunn; Dundee, A. Graham; Lower Tugela, H. A. Clark; Inanda, C. F. M. Sparks.

GAOLS

Central Gaol, Maritzburg: Governor, J. R. Thomson.

Central Gaol, Durban: Governor, Captain A. M. Smith.

Other Gaols, with Gaolers' names: Greytown, J. Davis; Umsinga, W. M. Hearn; Ixopo, A. J. Elliott; Dundee, R. Mahon; Richmond, W. J. Brown; Newcastle, J. H. Lewis; Umzinto, W. S. Malley; Verulam, J. Beckett; Estcourt, A. C. Bell; Stanger, J. Delvin; Ladysmith, J. Lotter; Ipolela, W. E. Phillips; Howick, W. H. Deavin; Weenen, W. F. Parsons; Harding, W. E. Wikens; Port Shepstone, C. Milne; Upper Tugela, E. A. Taylor; Mapumulo, Trooper R. F. Longlands; Ndwedwe, H. Swan; Eshowe, D. Deane; Nqutu, R. D. Talbot; 'Nkandhla, H. Speed; Enton-janeni, H. A. Elliott.

Forty-two European warders and guards.

Two hundred and twenty-six Native warders and guards.

 


The Mentions gained by Police were as follows:

Sir G. White's Despatches: 2nd December 1899: Col J. G. Dartnell, Chief Com. Natal Police, "rendered valuable service to the late Lieutenant Gen. Sir W. Penn-Symons and to Brig.-Gen. Yule when the Dundee column fell back on Ladysmith; his advice and experience were of the highest value, and I found him always ready and willing to help me in any way in his power."

23rd March 1900: Colonel Dartnell possesses an exceptional knowledge of the Colony and of native character. I am greatly obliged to him for the advice and assistance which he has always been ready to afford me, of which I have availed myself freely, and which I have found of the highest value.

Sir R Buller's despatches: 30th March 1900: Mounted Police - Inspectors Fairlie and Abraham.

Lord Robert's despatches: 2nd April 1901: Colonel Dartnell, as GOC Natal Colonists, has maintained the best traditions of the regular forces. His name stands very high in the estimation of the colonists, and he possesses the greatest influence over the natives. His advice was of much assistance in the earliest actions of the war, afterwards during the siege of Ladysmith, and finally in the general advance through the Biggarsberg to Laing's Nek, when Natal was cleared of the enemies of the Queen. Colonel Dartnell was awarded the KCB.

8th October 1901: Zululand Police - Sgt. Gumbi, for gallantry and good service in defence of Fort Prospect, September 26.

8th December 1901: Natal Police - Sgt. Lane, for excellent work in defence of a convoy from Melmoth to Nkandhla, May 29. Sgt. A. J. Smith of the Police, and Trooper A. W. Evans of the M.R., got the DCM

23rd June 1902: Natal Police Field Force - Sub-Insp. J. Hamilton; Sergeants Newson, Goode.

 


 

© Crown copyright images reproduced by permission of The National Archives, London, England.   The National Archives give no warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or fitness for the purpose of the information provided.   Images may be used only for purposes of research, private study or education.  Applications for any other use should be made to The National Archives Image Library, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU, Tel: 020 8392 5225   Fax: 020 8392 5266.   

 

pdficon_large QSA roll. 19MB. 44 pages
pdficon_large Supplementary roll. 17MB. 42 pages
pdficon_large Served in Provisional Transvaal Constabulary. 0.6MB. 1 page

 


 

This section contains the daily orders for the Natal Police.  These are handwritten entries that have been scanned in batches of 10 pages and presented using the date of the first page of each batch as the date in the second column in the table below.

Click on the PDF icon to open the file.

I am slowly building the descrition for each file to make it more usable.  If you can help with indexing any of the batches, please post the information on the forum and I will add it here.  

 

 LInk  

Date

  Pages  

Description       

 pdficon_large 31 August 1899 10  
 pdficon_large  14 September 1899 10

 15 Sep - detachment to Greytown for duty;  names and route

 18 Sep - List of men reporting to the railway station

 20 Sep - List of men reporting to the railway station

 21 Sep - List of men reporting to the railway station

 25 Sep - response to active service call

 pdficon_large  28 September 1899 10

 28 Sep - men to join Zululand Natice Police

 29 Sep - detachment to Estcourt

 4 Oct - detachment to Bulwer

 9 Oct - 15 new enlistments

 10 Oct - 2 new enlistments

 11 Oct - detachment to Ladysmith

 13 Oct - declaration of martial law

 pdficon_large  13 October 1899 10  
 pdficon_large  25 October 1899 10  
 pdficon_large  3 November 1899 10  
 pdficon_large  23 November 1899 10  
 pdficon_large  8 December 1899 10  
  
  1900

 pdficon_large  2 January 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  18 January 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  31 January 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  24 February 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  26 March 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  4 April 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  20 April 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  4 May 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  21 May 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  6 June 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  25 June 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  2 July 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  16 July 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  23 July 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  7 August 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  23 August 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  7 September 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  26 September 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  4 October 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  17 October 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  29 October 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  12 November 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  22 November 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  30 November 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  8 December 1900 10  
 pdficon_large  21 December 1900 10  

  1901

 pdficon_large  7 January 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  22 January 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  4 February 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  20 February 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  6 March 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  18 March 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  30 March 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  12 April 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  26 April 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  6 May 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  21 May 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  6 June 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  24 June 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  8 July 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  20 July 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  6 August 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  12 August 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  28 August 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  10 September 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  23 September 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  7 October 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  17 October 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  1 November 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  8 November 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  18 November 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  30 November 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  13 December 1901 10  
 pdficon_large  31 December 1901 10  


  1902

 pdficon_large  13 January 1902 10  
 pdficon_large  25 January 1902 10  
 pdficon_large  11 February 1902 10  
 pdficon_large  27 February 1902 10  
 pdficon_large  6 March 1902 10  
 pdficon_large  17 March 1902 10  
 pdficon_large  25 March 1902 10  
 pdficon_large  10 April 1902 10  
 pdficon_large  21 April 1902 10  
 pdficon_large  30 April 1902 10  
 pdficon_large  13 May 1902 10  
 pdficon_large  13 June 1902 10  

 


 

Group to W Hearn, Natal Police
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Natal LS&GC to J H Lewis, Natal Police.
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Pair to Trooper C W Matthews, Natal Police. 46 Talana clasps to the NP.
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NMP Station
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At Malvern in 1909
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NCOs from 1906
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Newcastle, 1905
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Officers in 1899
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Natal Police with Dartnell
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Natal Police numbers and locations, 1899
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Major-General Sir J. G. Dartnell
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Langalibalele
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Isandhlwana Hill
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Rorke's Drift depot after the battle of 22nd January 1879
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The place where the Prince Imperial was killed, as it was just after his death
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The Rorke's Drift memorial
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Inspector Dimmick, adjutant of Natal Police
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Natal Police field force with maxim guns, in 1897
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Memorial at Pietermaritzburg to police and Natal Troops who fell in the Boer War of 1899-1902
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Trooper Police crossing the Tugela during the Rebellion of 1906
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Transport crossing the Tugela (1906 Rebellion)
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Natal Police at breakfast at Middle Drift, while in pursuit of Bambata (1906 Rebellion)
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Transport crossing the Tugela (1906 Rebellion)
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Man-handling wagons up Macala Hill, during the Rebellion of 1906
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A welcome drink at a drift on the Tugela (1906 Rebellion)
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A transport wagon overturned on bad roads during the rebellion of 1906
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Cakijani, the rebel
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Ndhlovu
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Colonel Clarke, Chief Commissioner of Natal Police
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Squad of recruits at drill
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Recruits at drill
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Police camp at Glen Rosa, Alexandra County
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Police camp at Gwaliweni, on the border of Swaziland
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Zulus paying dog tax to a trooper on patrol near Ingwavuma, Zululand
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Native carriers bearing kit used on census duty
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166 prisoners on trial for taking part in a faction fight
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Police camp at Loteni, near Basutoland border
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Police camp at Nqutu, Zululand
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A typical out-station group, at mahlabatini, with the native police and sporting dogs
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Natal police taking their midday meal at ndumu, northern zululand, while on census duty
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Police camp at knoxwood
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The old police camp at Ndumu
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The water police
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Uniform and kit of the natal mounted police in the early eighties
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Officers of the Natal Police (wearing 75 medals)
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Group to J H Delvin, Natal Police
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Miniature group to Major General Sir John G Dartnell, KCB, CMG, Natal Volunteer and Mounted Police Force. DNW Jun 05 £700
gallery1
 

 

Parent Category: Units
Category: South African units
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