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South Africa and The Boer-British War

COMPRISING

A HISTORY OF SOUTH AFRICA AND ITS PEOPLE, INCLUDING

THE WAR OF 1899 AND 1900

BY

J. CASTELL HOPKINS, F.S.S.

Author of The Life and Works of Mr. Gladstone;

Queen Victoria, Her Life and Reign; The Sword

of Islam, or Annals of Turkish Power;

Life and Work of Sir John Thompson.

Editor of "Canada; An Encyclopedia," in six volumes.

AND

MURAT HALSTEAD

Formerly Editor of the Cincinnati "Commercial Gazette,"

and the Brooklyn "Standard-Union." Author of The

Story of Cuba; Life of William McKinley;

The Story of the Philippines; The History of American

Expansion; The History of the Spanish-American War;

Our New Possessions, and

The Life and Achievements of Admiral Dewey, etc., etc.

IN TWO VOLUMES

VOLUME I. IN TWO PARTS

THE BRADLEY-GARRETSON COMPANY, Limited

BRANTFORD, CANADA

THE LINSCOTT PUBLISHING COMPANY

LONDON, ENGLAND ---- TORONTO, CANADA

Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, at the

Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, in the year One Thousand

Nine Hundred, by J. L. Nichols & Co.

PREFACE.

To measure the South African War of 1899-1900 merely by the population of the two Boer Republics, would necessitate its consideration as an unimportant contest in comparison with the great international conflicts of the century. To measure it by the real power of the Dutch in South Africa, under present conditions, and by the principles involved in its inception and prosecution, makes it a struggle which rivals in importance the Crimean War, the American Civil War or the Franco-Prussian conflict. In the first of these, Great Britain, France and Sardinia united to resist the dangerous designs and aggressive policy of Russia which threatened their power in the Mediterranean and the British route to India through its intended seizure or acquisition of Constantinople. In the second, the United States was fighting a great conflict for national unity. In the third, Prussia averted a campaign of "On to Berlin" by speedy and successful military action.

All of these elements find a place in the South African War. The policy of President Kruger, President Steyn and the Afrikander Bund, of Cape Colony, has been developing for years into a dangerous and combined effort for the creation of a United Dutch South Africa and the seizure of Cape Town--one of the chief stations of British commercial and maritime power. Mr. Chamberlain precipitated matters, so far as the Cape Colony Dutch were concerned, by a policy of firmness to which they were unaccustomed at the hands of the Colonial Office and which, cautious and conciliatory as it was, forced the hand of the Transvaal President before his general policy was quite matured. As the diplomatic negotiations proceeded and the war itself developed it became a struggle for Imperial unity as truly and fully as was the American Civil War. Two great Colonies of the Empire were threatened, the principles of equal right and equal liberty upon which its entire self-governing portions have been built up and maintained were spurned, and the feeling of unity which has latterly grown so amazingly amongst its various countries was openly flouted by the treatment of the Uitlanders and the attack upon Cape Colony and Natal. Backed by the undoubted ability of President Kruger, the sentiment of racial unity amongst the Dutch of all South Africa, the swords and science of European officers and experts, the immense sums drawn from the Uitlanders and possibly from Europe, the armaments prepared during a long term of years with skill and knowledge, the characteristics of a people admirably adapted through both knowledge and experience for warfare on South African soil, the Boer cry of "On to Durban" was really more menacing to British interests and conditions of unpreparedness than was the cry of the Parisian populace, in 1870, to the Kingdom of Prussia. A war with France might not have been nearly as difficult or as serious a matter to Great Britain under existing conditions as the war with the Boer Republics has turned out to be.

The loss of South Africa, or the failure to assert British supremacy as the Paramount Power in that region, would not only have humiliated Great Britain in the eyes of rival nations everywhere and precipitated peril wherever aggressive foreign ambition could find a desirable opening, but it would have lost her the respect, the admiration or the loyalty of rising British nations in Australia and Canada; of lesser Colonies all over the world; of swarming millions of uncivilized races in Hindostan, China and Northern Africa. Its influence would have been a shock to the commercial and financial nerves of the world; a blow to the independence and liberties of the "little peoples" who now rest securely under the real or nominal guarantee of British power. In the Persian Gulf and on the borders of Afghanistan, upon the frontiers of Siam and the shores of the Bosphorus, in the waters of Australasia and on the coasts of Newfoundland, upon the banks of the mighty Nile and along the borders of Canada, the result would have come as the most menacing storm-cloud of modern history. The power of a great race to continue its mission of colonization, civilization and construction was involved; and would be again involved if any future and serious European intervention were threatened.

The origin of the question itself is too wide and complicated to treat of in a few brief words. To some superficial onlookers it has been a simple matter of dispute as to franchise regulations between President Kruger and Mr. Chamberlain. To the enemies of England it has been a wicked and heartless attempt on the part of Great Britain to seize a Naboth's vineyard of gold and territory. To a few Englishmen, even, it has seemed a product of capitalistic aggression or of the personal ambition of a Rhodes or a Chamberlain. To many more it has appeared as a direct consequence of the Gladstone policy of 1881 and 1884. In reality, however, it is the result of a hundred years of racial rivalry, during which the Boer character has been evolved out of intense isolation, deliberate ignorance and cultivated prejudice into the remarkable product of to-day, while the nature of his British neighbor has expanded in the light of liberty and through the gospel of equality, of labor and of world-wide thought, into the great modern representative of progress in all that makes for good government, active intellectual endeavor, material wealth and Imperial expansion.

Stagnation as opposed to progress, slavery to freedom, racial hatred to general unity, isolation and seclusion to free colonization and settlement, the darkness of the African veldt to the light of European civilization--these are the original causes of the war. British mistakes of policy in defending the Boer against the Kaffir or the Kaffir against the Boer; political errors in making the Conventions of 1852 and 1854, of 1881 and 1884; hesitancy in the annexation of territory and indifference in the holding of it; have increased the complications of South African life and government, but have not affected the root of the evil--the fact of two absolutely conflicting social and political systems developing side by side during a century of difficulty and racial rivalry. This antagonism has been absolute. The Boer love for liberty or independence became simply a love for isolation from the rest of humanity and a desire to imitate the slave-owners of Old Testament history. The final result has been the creation of a foreign, or Hollander, oligarchy in both the Dutch republics for the purpose of preserving this condition. The British ideal is freedom in government, in trade, in politics, for himself and for others, regardless of race, or creed, or color. The Boer principle of morality has always been a mere matter of color; that of the average Englishman is very different. The Boer religion is a gospel of sombreness wrapped in the shadow of Hebrew seclusion and exclusiveness; that of the true Englishman is a gospel of love and the light of a New Testament dispensation. Side by side these two types have lived and struggled in South Africa, and to-day the racial, national, individual and other differences are being thrown into the crucible of a desperate conflict. There can only be one local result--the ultimate organization of a united South Africa in which race and creed and color will be merged in one general principle of perfect equality and the practice of one great policy of liberty to all, within the bounds of rational legislation and honest life. A second and more widely potent consequence will be the closer constructive union of the British Empire and the welding of its scattered and sometimes incoherent systems of defence and legislation and commerce into one mighty whole in which Canada and Australia and South Africa and, in some measure, India will stand together as an Imperial unit. A third and very important result, arising out of the policy of foreign nations during the struggle, should also be the drawing closer of existing ties of friendship and kinship between the British Empire and the American Republic.

J. CASTELL HOPKINS.

[Illustration: THE RT. HON. SIR BARTLE FRERE, G.C.B. High Commissioner for South Africa, 1877-1881. THE RT. HON. SIR GEORGE GREY, K.C.B. High Commissioner for South Africa, 1854-1862.]

[Illustration: MR. CECIL J. RHODES, The Diamond King and Promoter of the Cape-to-Cairo Railroad, South Africa. LORD ROBERTS, V.C., G.C.B., G.C.I.E., Commander-in-Chief British Forces, South Africa.]

Part I.

LIST OF CHAPTERS AND SUBJECTS

CHAPTER I.

Early Scenes of Settlement and Struggle.

The Dark Continent--The Old-time Natives of the South--The Bantu, Hottentots and Bushmen--The Portuguese of South Africa--The Dutch East India Company--A Dutch Colony at the Cape--The First Slaves--Introduction of Asiatics--The Boer Pioneer Farmer--Arrival of the Huguenots--Wars with the Bantu or Kaffirs--Extension of Settlement and Exploration--The First British Occupation--Final British Conquest--The Dutch, the English, the French and the Natives--Birth of the South African Question

CHAPTER II.

The Dutch and the Natives.

The Early Dutch Character--Contempt for Coloured Races--The Commencement of Slavery, Its Nature and Practices--The Wandering Native Tribes Learn to Hate the Dutchman--English and Dutch Views in Antagonism--The Missionary Interferes--Unwise Action in Some Cases--Policy of Dr. Philip--Dutch Hostility to England Increased by Dislike of Mission Work and Antagonism to Slavery--Missionary Influence upon the Latter--The Dutch and the Kaffir Wars--Hardships of the Settlers--Rise of the Zulu Power under Tshaka--The Matabele and Moselkatze--Moshesh and the Basutos--A Second Period in the South African Problem Begins

CHAPTER III.

The Great Trek and its First Results.

The British Abolition of Slavery--The Immediate Effects of the Measure Disastrous to Both Dutch and Natives--The Trek of 1836 Commences--The Emigrant Farmer, Qualities and Mode of Life--Nature of the Country Traversed Character of the Various Native Tribes--Ruthless Warfare--The Boer Skill in Marksmanship--The Boers North of the Orange River--Their Subjugation of the Matabele--Pieter Retief and His Party in Natal--Massacre by Dingaan--Boer War with the Zulus--Conquest of Dingaan and His Followers by Pretorius--Dutch Treatment of the Natives--Boers Develop Strength in War But Show Signal Weakness in Government--Collision with the English in Natal--The Cape Governor Decides that the Natives Must be Protected--Conflict Between Boers and English--The Republic of Natalia Becomes a British Country--The Boers Trek North of the Vaal River and Colonize the Transvaal--Establishment of Moshesh by the British as Head of a Border Native State--The Griquas--A Third Phase of the South African Question

CHAPTER IV.

Birth of the Dutch Republics.

English Policy in South Africa During the Middle of the Century--Non-interference, no Expansion, Limitation of Responsibility--Brief Exception in the Case of the Orange River Boers--Annexation, in 1848, and Establishment as the Orange River Sovereignty--English Protection of the Boers Against the Natives--Rebellion of Pretorious and Defeat of the Dutch at Boomplaatz by Sir Harry Smith--A New Governor at the Cape and a Hastily Changed Policy--Independence of the Transvaal Boers Recognized in 1852--The Sand River Convention--English Campaign Against the Basutos in Defence of the Orange River Boers--Arrival of Sir George Clerk with Instructions to Withdraw British Authority from the Orange River Country--Protests of the Loyal Settlers--Formation and Recognition of the Orange Free State--A New Setting for an Old Problem

CHAPTER V.

Development of Dutch Rule.

Divergent Lines of Growth in the Republics--The Orange Free State and the Basutos--Early Difficulties and Laws--Rise of President Brand into Power--His High Character and Quarter of a Century's Wise Administration of the Free State--Diamond Discoveries and the Keate Award--Liberal Policy of the Free State and General Friendship with England--In the Transvaal--Troubles of the Emigrant Farmers North of the Vaal--Four Little Republics--Union Under Martin W. Pretorius, in 1864, after a Period of Civil War--Rise of S. J. P. Kruger into Prominence--Conflicts with the Natives--T. F. Bergers Becomes President--General Stagnation, Developing by 1877 into Public Bankruptcy--Failure to Conquer Sekukuni and the Bapedis--Danger from the Zulus under Cetywayo--Annexation to the British Empire--A New Link Forged in the Chain of Events

CHAPTER VI.

Development of Cape Colony.

Gradual Growth of Population after the Great Trek--Climate, Resources and Government--Agriculture and the Dutch Settlers--Lack of Progressiveness--The English and the Cultivation of Special Industries--Partial Self-government Granted to the Cape--Executive Council, Schools and Courts--English as the Official Language--Elective Council and Assembly Constituted in 1853--Extensive German Colonization--Railways and Diamonds--Incorporation of New Territories--The Establishment of Responsible Government--The Dutch and the English in Politics--Representative Men of the Colony--Cecil Rhodes Appears on the Scene--Racial Conditions in 1877--The Confederation Scheme Defeated in the Cape Parliament--Religion, Education and Trade--The Afrikander Bund Formed at the Cape--It Becomes a Most Important Element in the South African Situation

CHAPTER VII.

Imperial Policy in South Africa.

The Early Governors of Cape Colony and Their Difficulties--The Colonial Office and its Lack of Defined and Continuous Policy--Growth in England of Public Indifference to Colonies--Its Unfortunate Expression in 1852-54--Fluctuating Treatment of the Natives--Good Intentions and Mistaken Practices--Sir George Grey and South Africa--A Wise Statesman--His Policy of Confederation and Conciliation--Hampered by the Colonial Office and the Anti-Expansion School in England--The Non-intervention Policy and the Natives--Conditions in Natal--Importance of the Cape to the Empire--Importance of South Africa to the British People--Slow-growing Comprehension of these Facts in England--Sir Bartle Frere at the Cape--Eventual Repudiation of His Plans and Recall of the Best of South African Governors--The Gladstone Government's Responsibility for Succeeding Evils--The Absence of a Continuous Policy toward the Natives and Varied Questions of Territorial Extension Involve the Colonists in Constant Trouble and the Imperial Exchequer in Immense Expenditures--A Story of Imperial Burdens, Mistakes and Good Intentions; of Colonial Difficulties, Protests and Racial Complexities

CHAPTER VIII.

The Native Races of South Africa,

Origin, Character and Customs--The Bantu or Kaffirs--Offshoots Such as the Matabele and Zulus--Some Great Chiefs--Tchaka, Dingaan, Moshesh, Cetywayo and Khama--Merciless Character of Native Wars--Dealings with the English and the Dutch--Difference in National Methods of Treating Savages--Force, or Evidence of Power, the Surest Preservative of Peace--The Slaves of the Boer and the Slaves of the Savage--Result of Emancipation upon the Native--Result of Missionary Labour amongst the Tribes--Livingstone and Moffat--Imperial Problems in the Rule of Inferior Races--Strenuous British Efforts at Justice and Mercy--The Bible and the Bayonet, the Missionary and the Soldier--Extremes Meet in the Policy of the Dutch and English

CHAPTER IX.

Character of the South African Boer.

A Peculiar Type--Mixture of Huguenot and Netherlands' Dutch--Divergence Between the Permanent Settler at the Cape and the Emigrant Farmer in the Two Republics--Good Qualities and Bad Curiously Mixed--A Keen Desire for Independence in the Form of Isolation--A Patriotism Bred of Ignorance and Cultivated by Prejudice--A Love of Liberty for Himself and of Slavery for Inferiors--The Possessor of Intense Racial Sentiment and of Sincere Religious Bigotry--Modification of these Qualities in Cape Colony by Education and Political Freedom--Moderate Expression of them in the Orange Free State as a Result of President Brand's Policy--Extreme Embodiment of them in the Transvaal--The Dutch Hatred of Missionaries--Dr. Livingstone on Dutch Character and Customs--Throughout South Africa the Dutch Masses are Slow and Sleepy, Serious and Somewhat Slovenly, Averse to Field Labour, Ignorant of External Matters and Without Culture--The Transvaal Boer the Most Active, Hardy and Aggressive in Character--Hatred of the English and His Wandering Life the Chief Reason--Morality and Immorality--Different Types of Dutch--Kruger and Pretorius, Joubert and Steyn--Hofmeyr and DeVilliers, Representative of the Higher Culture of Cape Colony

CHAPTER X.

The Annexation of the Transvaal.

Condition of the Republic in 1877--Dangers Without and Difficulties Within--The British Policy of Confederation--Public Opinion in England not Sufficiently Advanced--Lord Carnarvon, and Mr. J. A. Froude's Mission--Sir T. Shepstone Takes Action--A Peaceful Annexation Quietly Carried Out--Neither Force nor Serious Persuasion Used--The Ensuing Administration--Self-government not Granted--Sir Owen Lanyon's Mistakes--The Failure of the Confederation Scheme--Mr. Gladstone's Political Campaign in England--Effect of His Utterances in South Africa--He Comes into Power--Protests against Annexation Develop--Dutch Delegates in England--Refusal to Reverse the Annexation--Boer Rebellion and Ultimate British Repudiation of Pledges and Policy--Magnanimity Appears to the Dutch as Pusillanimity and Paves the Way for Years of Trouble and Much Bloodshed

CHAPTER XI.

Natal and the Zulu War.

Slow Progress of Natal--Limited White Population--Constitution and General History--Rise of the Zulu Power--From the Days of Tshaka to those of Cetywayo--A Curious British Encouragement of Native Strength--Bravery and Good Qualities of the Zulus--Lust of Conquest and Cruelty in War--Cetywayo's Impis Threaten the Boers of the Transvaal and the English of Natal--Sir Bartle Frere Arrives at Cape Town as High Commissioner and Considers War Necessary in Order to Avert Massacre--Takes the Initiative and British Forces Invade Zululand--Lord Chelmsford in Command--Isandlhwana, Rorke's Drift and Ulundi--Sir Bartle Frere Recalled and Sir Garnet Wolseley Sent Out--Settlement of the Zulu Troubles--A Curious Portion of a Complex Problem--Ensuing Advancement of Natal

CHAPTER XII.

A Review of the South African Question.

British Views of Government and Treatment of Natives Antagonistic to those of the Dutch--No Question of Republicanism versus Monarchy--The Dutch at the Cape Possessed of a Larger Share in Public Administration than the Boers of the Transvaal--The Language Question a Serious One--Equality of Population and Opportunity and Privilege at the Cape Without Equality of Education or Knowledge--The British Government and the Missionaries--The Dutch and Slavery--The Non-intervention Policy and Confederation--The Question of Cape Colony Extension--Cecil Rhodes and South Africa--Progress versus Stagnation--The Latter Wins at Majuba Hill and for a Time Turns Back the Hand of Destiny--The South African Question Enters on its Last Phase

CHAPTER XIII.

The Colonies and the War.

Sentiment in the Colonies Regarding Imperial Defence--Changes within a Few Years--Australians and Canadians in the Soudan--Public Feeling in Canada and Australia concerning the Transvaal Negotiations--General Sympathy with Great Britain--Expressions of Public Opinion and Parliamentary Resolutions--The Outbreak of War--Action Taken by New Zealand and Queensland, by Victoria and New South Wales--Other Colonies Move--The Sudden Outburst of Feeling in Canada--Colonel Hughes and the Volunteer Movement--The Premier and Parliament--Public Opinion Impels Immediate Action--The Government Does its Duty in a Patriotic Manner--Mr. Israel Tarte and the French Canadians--Attitude of Sir Charles Tupper--The Contingent Enrolled--Popular Enthusiasm during the Enlistment--The Officers Chosen--Lieutenant-Colonel W. D. Otter Commands the "Second Battalion of the Royal Canadian Regiment"--Sir Charles Holled-Smith in Command of the Australasians--Departure of the Canadian Contingent amid Scenes of Unprecedented Popular Enthusiasm--Similar Incidents in Australia--Speeches by Lord Brassey, Governor of Victoria, and by Lord Minto, Governor-General of Canada--Attitude of the Imperial Government toward the Colonies--Mr. Chamberlain's Correspondence--Dr. W. H. Fitchett on Australian Loyalty--The New-South-Wales Lancers in London--Arrival and Great Reception of the Colonial Forces at Cape Town--Second Contingent Offered--The Colonies and the Empire

LIST OF CHAPTERS AND SUBJECTS.

PART II.

Introduction.

The Origin of the Recent War--Boers' Policy Against Immigrants--Characteristics of the Boers--Antagonism to British Rule--British Government in South Africa--Telling Statistics--A Magnificent Project--Opinions of the Canadians

CHAPTER I.

The Battle of Majuba Hill.

Lord Rosebery's Reflections--The Sting of Majuba Hill--The Gordon Highlanders at Majuba Hill--Testimony of an Eye Witness--Proclamation of President Steyn--Reply to the Boer Proclamation--The First Right to the Transvaal Gold--The Broukhorst Spruit--The Laing's Nek--Terms of Settlement

CHAPTER II.

The President of the South African Republic.

Birth, Education, etc.--Paul Kruger at Ten Years--Appearance and Manners--The Boer of Boers--Daily Life--His Grand Passion--Facts of History--Kruger's Chinese Wall--A Misleading Reputation--Racial Prejudices--Free and Independent Krugerism--Kruger's Nepotism

CHAPTER III.

The Boers and British Gold and Diamonds.

Solomon's Ophir--How the Gold was Discovered--Early Gold Finds--Gold Production in 1897 and 1898--A Clear and Impartial Statement--Boss and Caste Government--Boer Intolerance--The "Dog in the Manger"--Commerce of the Transvaal--The First Stamp Mill--Diamonds for Toys--Boyle's Statement--Star of South Africa--Dry Diggings--Qualities of the Cape Diamonds--"Nature's Freemasonry"

CHAPTER IV.

The Cause of War.

Conference With Kruger--Many Points of Difference--Kruger's Objection to Franchise--Qualifications for Citizenship--An Absolutely Fair Proposition--Ireland and Transvaal--What Mr. Chamberlain Wrote--A Statement by Kruger--Petition from Natal--Resolutions of the House of Commons of Canada--Kruger's Views on the Question--President Steyn as Peace-maker

CHAPTER V.

The Boer Declaration of War and the Gathering of the Armies.

Both Sides Surprised--The Boer Ultimatum--Centres of Combat Quickly Defined--Important Decisions--Early Days of the War--Public Opinion--Two Popular Illusions

CHAPTER VI.

The First Bloodshed.

First Battle of the War--Battle of Elandslaagte--Hard Work on Both Sides--General Buller Arrives--The Strategy of the Boers--Difficulties in Mobilizing the Troops--Boers Select Their Time Judiciously

CHAPTER VII.

The Magersfontein Battle.

Heavy Losses on Both sides--The Hottest Fight of the British Army--Gatacre's Serious Reverse--Methuen's Failure--The Losses--What Dispatches Say--Sudden Change of Public Sentiment--The Official Boer Account

CHAPTER VIII.

Battle of Colenso.--Defeat of General Buller.

"Tied by the Leg"--American and Boer Revolution Compared--New Conditions of Warfare--Plan of the Fight--Mistaken but Heroic Advance--Attack Fruitless--Boers Capture the Guns--Why Were the Guns Lost?--Conduct of the Men--Bad Light and no Smoke--Defeat Admitted--Dazed by Defeat--A Foredoomed Failure

CHAPTER IX.

The Siege of Ladysmith.

Location of Ladysmith--Timely Arrival of the Naval Brigade--First Serious Reverse--Excitement in London--Symon's Death and Victory--Closing in of Ladysmith--A Narrow Escape--Caves Excavated for Families--Town Hall Struck--Midnight Bombardment--Hard Pressed--Boer Attempt to Storm--Thrilling Encounters--Relief at Last--British Troops Enter the Town

CHAPTER X.

The Relief of Kimberley--The Turn of the Tide of War Against the Boers.

Difference in Positions of Roberts and Buller--A White Man's War--Each Step Carefully Considered--A Remarkable Cavalry Movement--Kimberley Relieved--Roberts and Buller in Co-operation--Roberts' Public Utterances--What a Military Specialist Says--The Spion Kop Affair--The Kop Retaken by the Boers

CHAPTER XI.

Cronje's Surrender and the Occupation of Bloemfontein.

Cronje Hard Pressed--Cronje Capitulates--Cronje and Roberts Meet--The Detailed Report of Roberts--Kruger Willing to Compromise--From Modder River to Bloemfontein--Kruger and Steyn's Address to Lord Salisbury--Lord Salisbury's Answer--The British Cordially Greeted in Bloemfontein--The Press on Mediation

Official List.

of the Royal Canadian Soldiers Gone to South Africa

NOTE.--Official lists of Second and Third Contingents not being complete at time of issuing FIRST VOLUME, they will be inserted in full in SECOND VOLUME.

Illustrations.

The Illustrations in this volume have NO FOLIOS. There are 64 FULL PAGES of PLATES, and 448 pages of reading matter, making a total of 512 pages.

Glossary of Boer Terms.

That the readers of this volume may understand the meaning of certain Boer names and words which the author has found it necessary to use, we append the following glossary of those most frequently employed:

Aarde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Earth, ground

Afgang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slope

Baas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Master

Beek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brook

Berg . . . . . . . Mountain (the plural is formed by adding en)

Boer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Farmer

Boom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tree

Boschveldt . . . . . . . . . . . An open plain covered with bush

Broek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marsh, pool

Buitenlander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreigner

Burg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A town

Burgher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A citizen

Commandeer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To levy troops

Commando . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A body of armed men

Daal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A valley

Dorp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A village

Drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A ford

Dusselboom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pole of an ox wagon

Fontein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A spring or fountain

Gebied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . District

Hout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wood, timber

Inspan . . . . . . . . . . To harness or tether horses or cattle

Jonkher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gentleman of the Volks Raad

Karroo . . . . . . . A geographical term for a certain district. In Hottentot, a "dry place"

Kerel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A chap, or fellow

Klei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clay

Kloof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A valley or ravine

Kop, or Kopje . . . . . . . . . . . . A hill or small mountain

Kraal . . . . . . . . . . . . A place of meeting, headquarters

Kruger . . . . . . . . . The family name of present president of South African Republic

Krantz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A precipice

Laager . . . . A fortified camp, but often applied to any camp, fortified or not

Landdrost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local governor

Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Course, channel

Modder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mud

Mooi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pretty

Nachtmal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lord's Supper

Nieuwe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New

Oom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uncle

Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bed of a dried-up salt marsh

Poort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A passage between mountains

Raad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Senate

Raadsher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Senator

Raadhuis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Senate hall

Raadzael . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parliament house

Rand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edge, margin

Rooinek . . . . . Term of contempt applied to British by Boers

Ruggens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A barren, hilly country

Schantze . . . . . . A heap of stones used to protect a marksman against opposing rifle fire

Slim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cunning, crafty

Sluit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A ditch

Spruit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creek

Staat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State

Stad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A town or city

Transvaal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Across the valley

Trek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A journey

Trekken . . . . . . . . . . . . . To travel, or pull away from

Uit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outside

Uitspan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To unharness, to stop

Uitlander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An outsider or newcomer

Vaal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valley

Veldt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A prairie, or treeless plain

Veldtheer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general in command

Vley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A prairie-like meadow

Volks Raad . . . . . . . . . House of commons or representatives

Voortrekkers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pioneers

Vrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Housewife

Witwaterstrand . . . . . . . . . . . The edge of the White Water

Zuid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South

The correct pronunciation of Boer words is very difficult to a speaker of the English tongue, hence the attempt to give it in above glossary is omitted. The language is as peculiar to South Africa as the jargon French of lower Louisiana is to that country and even more unlike Holland Dutch than the Creole dialect is unlike Parisian French. While the Boer speech was primarily Dutch, it has been so modified by isolation from the mother country for more than two centuries, and by contact with the native African tribes, and by the influx of French, Spanish and Maylay elements, that a native Hollander is scarcely able to understand it, even when written, and to speak it, as the Boers do, he finds impossible.


 

Book cover
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BOERS HELIOGRAPHING ON THE NATAL FRONTIER
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THE LAST LETTER HOME. An incident at Ladysmith. Red Cross Nurse writing a message of love from a dying soldier.
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BATTLE OF LADYSMITH—TERRIBLE DASH OF HORSE ARTILLERY RUSHING TO TAKE UP A NEW POSITION
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WOUNDED OFFICERS CHATTING IN WARD NO. 1
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TWO SIDES TO THE QUESTION. Boer or Briton? A heated discussion on the crisis.
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PRESIDENT KRUGER AND HIS CHIEF ADVISERS IN THE WAR. A. Wolmarans, F. W. Reitz (State Secretary), S. M. Berger, J. M. H. Kock, Com. Gen'l P. J. Joubert, President S. J. P. Kruger, P. J. Cronje (Supt. of Natives).
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COLONEL BADEN-POWELL. GENERAL FRENCH
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A COLUMN OF THE BRITISH SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE MARCHING TO MAFEKING. THE ILL-FATED TENTH MULE BATTERY CAPTURED BY THE BOERS (From Photo by H. Johnstone)
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THE OBSERVATION BALLOON. Used by the British in observing the Boers' position. This balloon caused great annoyance to the Dutch and they tried in vain with rifle and cannon to puncture it.
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THE GUARDS TERRIFIC CHARGE—BATTLE OF BELMONT
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WILLIAM BRYANT, KINGSTON, CANADA, and Batt. Royal Fusiliers, Imperial Army, in South Africa. VICTORIA CONTINGENT FOR THE TRANSVAAL, Troops marching through Melbourne on Oct. 28th, 1899, Photo by Bishop, Prahran. MAJOR DUNCAN STUART, LONDON, ONT., With B Co., 1st Canadian Contingent in South Africa
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GENERAL SIR REDVERS BULLER ON HORSEBACK. MAJOR-GENERAL SIR A. HUNTER, K.C.B., Chief of Sir George White's Staff. LIEUTENANT-COLONEL T. SHERSTON, Killed in Battle of Glencoe
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GROUP OF OFFICERS CANADIAN TRANSVAAL CONTINGENT. PLATE I
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THE LONDON CONTINGENT OF THE CANADIAN TRANSVAAL REGIMENT. MAJOR D. STEWART ON THE LEFT
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GENERAL GATACRE ORDERING "CEASE FIRING"
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JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN, Colonial Secretary of England. PAUL KRUGER, President of the South African Republic. (Photo from Duffus Bros.)
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THE DEATH OF COLONEL CHISHOLME AT ELANDSLAAGTE. As the daring officer fell from his horse at the head of his men, he shouted, "Splendid, Lads!
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A COMMANDO OF BOERS CHARGING COLONEL BADEN-POWELL'S FORCES AT MAFEKING
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MAP SHOWING COUNTRY FROM DURBAN TO LADYSMITH
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BRITISH COURIER CARRYING THE NEWS OF THE BEGINNING OF WAR TO THE ENGLISH SETTLERS
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A DERVISH CHARGE, SOUDAN WAR. A battle of the Soudan in which Sir Herbert Kitchener avenged the massacre of Hicks Pasha and his 12,000 men; also the death of the heroic Gordon which occurred a year later.
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THE RICHEST DIAMOND MINES OF THE WORLD, KIMBERLEY, SOUTH AFRICA
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OFFICERS WHO FELL IN THE EARLY BATTLES OF THE TRANSVAAL WAR
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ADVANCE OF THE GORDONS AGAINST THE BOERS AT ELANDSLAAGTE, OCTOBER 21, 1899. THE BATTLE OF ELANDSLAAGTE—THE DEVONS, MANCHESTERS AND GORDONS CHARGING BOER GUNS
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LT.-COL. T. D. B. EVANS, Canadian Mounted Rifles in South Africa. LT.-COL. F. L. LESSARD, Commanding Royal Canadian Dragoons in South Africa. LIEUT. JAMES C. MASON, First Canadian Contingent in South Africa. LIEUT.-COL. A. M. COSBY Commanding 48th Royal Highlanders, Toronto, and his two sons in the Second Contingent in South Africa—Lieut. F. Lorne Cosby and Norman W. Cosby
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BOERS FIRING ON GENERAL FRENCH'S TRAIN EN ROUTE TO DURBAN. The excellent marksmanship of the Dutch of South Africa enables them to hit a man at the distance of a mile or more with their accurate aim.
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THE RT. HON. SIR BARTLE FRERE, G.C.B. High Commissioner for South Africa, 1877-1881. THE RT. HON. SIR GEORGE GREY, K.C.B. High Commissioner for South Africa, 1854-1862.
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SOME OF THE SECOND GORDON HIGHLANDERS ENJOYING A ROUGH AND READY CLEAN UP. BOER SCOUTING PARTY
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GENERAL SIR WILLIAM GATACRE, GENERAL LORD KITCHENER, THE HON. FREDERICK W. BORDEN, Canadian Minister of Militia and Defence, GENERAL JOUBERT Commander-in-Chief of the Dutch Forces. Died at Pretoria, March 27th, 1900.
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GOOD-BYE, DADDIE. The little son of Piper-Major Lang of the Scots Guards bidding his father farewell
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THE GORDON'S CHARGING THE BOERS, GROBLERS KLOOF
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INSPECTION BY THE COMMANDANT OF THE ASSEMBLED "COMMANDO" IN THE MARKET PLACE OF A DORP. BEGINNING OF THE WAR-BOERS LEAVING PRETORIA FOR THE FRONT.
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DUTCH FARMER RECEIVING ORDERS TO GO TO WAR. GENERAL JOUBERT AT THE SIEGE OF LADYSMITH
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THE LAST STAND OF THE KHALIFA'S STANDARD BEARER. A thrilling incident in the late Soudan war. "That one man, alone, was standing alive, holding his flag upright a storm of lead sweeping past him—his comrades dead around him."
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SCENE IN MARKET SQUARE, KIMBERLEY, THE CITY OF DIAMONDS
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PRESIDENT KRUGER WORSJIPPING IN CHURCH
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THE LAST CARTRIDGE. An incident in the battle of Glencoe.
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THE LEICESTER REGIMENT RETREATING TO LADYSMITH BOMBARDED BY THE BOERS
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FIRST SERIOUS BOER-BRITISH BATTLE, MAJUBA HILL, 1881. In which the Boers defeated the English and gained internal independence.
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BOERS CROSSING THE MALMANI FORD NEAR MAFEKING
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A MATABELE CHIEF. A KAFFIR CHIEF. PRESIDENT STEYN, ORANGE FREE STATE. SIR W. HALY-HUTCHINSON. GOVERNOR OF NATAL. ENGLISH, DUTCH AND NATIVE TYPES, SOUTH AFRICA
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GENERAL LORD METHUEN, British Commander, Battle of Modder River. GENERAL SIR GEORGE WHITE, V.C., Commander British Forces, Battle of Ladysmith.
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A NATIVE DISPATCH CARRIER OVERTAKEN BY THE BOERS
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THE NAVAL BRIGADE AT LADYSMITH SHELLING THE BOERS, OCTOBER 30, 1899. The large gun mounted on Captain Scott's carriage is shown in action.
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PRINCIPAL STREET OF PIETERMARITZBURG, CAPITAL OF NATAL
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A HUMANE AND DARING DEED. Lieutenant L. R. Pomeroy, when retiring to shelter at the battle of Ladysmith, November 3, 1890, saw a wounded and dismounted trooper needing help; and regardless of bullets and shells flying around, assisted his comrade to mount behind him and carried him to safety. Such are the deeds that win the Victoria Cross.
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THE GOVERNMENT BUILDING, PRETORIA, TRANSVAAL. A VIEW OF MAJUBA HILL FROM THE RAILWAY
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QUEEN VICTORIA AT BALMORAL, OCTOBER 22, 1899. Writing letters of sympathy to the near relations of the killed and wounded at the battle of Glencoe.
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RAILROAD NEAR LADYSMITH, VICINITY OF GENERAL WHITE'S BATTLE WITH THE BO
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AN ARMORED TRAIN FROM LADYSMITH RECONNOITERING
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BLUE JACKETS FROM THE BATTLESHIP "RENOWN" FIGHTING AT LADYSMITH.
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MR. CECIL J. RHODES, The Diamond King and Promoter of the Cape-to-Cairo Railroad, South Africa. LORD ROBERTS, V.C., G.C.B., G.C.I.E., Commander-in-Chief British Forces, South Africa.
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TRANSVAAL STATE ARTILLERY IN GUN PRACTICE. ARTILLERY CROSSING A DRIFT NEAR LADYSMITH
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BOER TACTICS. Alluring the English to death with a flag of truce.
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THE TOWN HALL AT LADYSMITH CONVERTED INTO A HOSPITAL
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AN ARMORED TRAIN SHELLING A BOER BATTERY AT NIGHT.
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A GENERAL VIEW OF ESTCOURT, TWENTY-FIVE MILES SOUTH OF LADYSMITH. GENERAL VIEW OF CITY OF LADYSMITH, NATAL (From Photo by Henry Kisch).
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MEMBERS OF THE FIRST VOLKSRAAD, S.A.R. J. W. VanDerryst (Bode), S. P Dutoit, A. K. Loveday, J. H. Labuschagne, J. G. G. Bassle (Stenographer), A. J. Havinga (Ass. Bode). B. J. Vorster, J. P. Goetser, L. Botha, J. DeGleroq, J. L. VanWiok, A. Bieperink. D. I. Louw, I. K. DeBeer, P. I. Schutte. W. J. Fogkens, Sec., A. D. Wolmarans, F. G. H. Wolmarans, H. M. S. Prinsloo, J. P. Meyer, J. DuP. DeBeer, J. H. De LaReis.
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MAJOR W. A. WEEKS, Charlottetown, P.E.I., Canada, LIEUTENANT J. C. OLAND, Halifax, Company H, CAPTAIN F. CAVERHILL JONES, St. John's, 3d Regt. Canadian Artillery, CORPORALS H. W. ACKHURST AND C. HANCOCK, both of Halifax. GROUP OF CANADIAN OFFICERS, TRANSVAAL CONTINGENT. PLATE II
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HOSPITAL TRAIN LOADING WOUNDED SOLDIERS
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THE TREACHERY OF A WOUNDED DERVISH. An incident in the Soudan War 1898.
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BATTLE BETWEEN THE ENGLISH AND THE ZULUS, SOUTH AFRICA, 1879
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Parent Category: Books
Category: Hopkins and Halstead: South Africa and the Boer-British War
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